The Czech National Programme on Conservation and Utilization of Microbial Genetic Resources Important for Agriculture
|Introduction||Animal Pathogenic Microorganisms||Phytopathogenic Microorganisms Olomouc||Hop Pathogens||Industrially Utilizable Microorganisms||Dairy Microorganisms|
|Brewery Microorganisms||Phytopathogenic Viruses||Fruit Trees and Small Fruit Viruses||Potato Viruses||Ornamental Plant Viruses||Phytopathogenic Bacteria|
|Rhizobia||Rusts and Powdery Mildew||Fungi CCF||Phytopathogenic Fungi CRI||Phytopathogenic Oomycetes||Edible
and Medicinal macromycetes
|Basidiomycetes||Invertebrate Crop Pests and their Natural Enemies||Stored-Product Pests, Mites and Fungi||Food Technologies CCM||Dairy and Bakery Contaminants||Clavicipitaceae|
The research on virus diseases of ornamental plants has a long tradition at the Silva Tarouca research institute for landscape and ornamental gardening at Průhonice. Altogether thirty seven viruses were isolated and identified here. The majority of these viruses has been maintained in leaf material dried over calcium chloride. Economic important viruses in ornamental crops were chosen of that collection and included in 1997 into the Czech National Programme on Protection of Genetic Resources of Economic Significant Microorganisms and Tiny Animals and their utilization in reference diagnostic in 1997.
• Characterization of collection
At present twenty six viruses represented by one hundrerd and three isolates are maintained in the collection.
Apple chlorotic mosaic virus (ACLSV) 1
Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) 2
Calibrachoa mottle virus (CbMV) 1
Chrysanthemum virus B (CVB) 3
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 8
Cymbidium mosaic virus (CyMV) 2
Dahlia mmosaic virus (DMV) 1
Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV) 2
Hydrangea ring spot virus (HdRSV) 2
Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV 5
Odontoglossum ring spot virus (ORSV) 2
Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV) 5
Petunia asteriod mosaic virus (PetAMV) 5
Plum pox virus (PPV) 1
Poplar mosaic virus (PopMV) 4
Potato virus Y (PVY 3
Scophularia mottle virus (ScrMV) 3
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) 12
Tobacco necrosis virus (TNV 9
Tobacco streak virus (TSV) 8
Tomato aspermy virus (TAV) 5
Tomato bushy stunt virus (ToBSV) 2
Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) 2
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) 8
Tulip breaking virus (TBV) 3
Tulip virus X (TVX) 4
Particular isolates are characterized by transmitting of infective sap from the original host to indicator plants. The plant species used for biological tests by sap inoculation are: Capsicum annum, Chenopodium quinoa, Chenopodium amaranticolor, Datura stramonium, Mimulus sp., Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotina debney, Nicotiana glutinosa, Nicotiana megalosiphon, Nicotina occidentalis, Nicotiana rustica, Nicotiana tabacum ‘Samsum’, ‘Xanthi’, ‘White Burely’ and Petunia hybrida. Serological tests ELISA have been used for further identification of the isolate. The antisera originate from commercial firms Leowe Biochemica - Germany, DSMZ – Germany, Bioreba – Switzerland, B Q Support – Netherlands, Neogen – Scotland or from research institutes in the Czech Republic, Germany, Netherlands and UK. Elecrone microscopy (EM) has been used for checking whether the isolate is not a mixture of two or more viruses. In some cases immunoelectron microscopy (EM) was used for proving the diagnostic of the virus (see fig. 1. - ?). Tobacco streak virus was identified also by the transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Isolates of the majority of viruses are maintained for the long-term in infected leaves dried over calcium chlorate (CaCl2) at the temperature 4° C. Leaves taken of the infected plant cut in small pieces are placed into a big Petri dish containing crystallic CaCl2 at the bottom covered with nylon net. Approximately after 20 days the dried sample is placed to a test tube containing CaCl2 at the bottom covered with a piece of cellulose wool. The test tubes are corked up and stored at 4° C. This method can be used without any problems especially for viruses characterized by natural mechanical transmission.
Viruses transmitted under natural conditions by vectors are stored also in infected living plants in an isolation glasshouse. If an insect transmitted virus was isolated from a bulb or a cormel plant these originally infected bulbs and cormels are grown further for having the possibility of the virus reisolation. Living plants infected by Tomato spotted wilt virus or Impatiens necrotic spot virus are grown in an isolation chambre according quarantine regulations.
Application:The collection of viruses and antisera is used in the diagnostic of virus infections in ornamental plant species. It is available to the State plant protection service for reference diagnostic.The virus isolates are used as positive controls in testing the breeding material of Impatiens, Petunia, Dahlia and Tulipa appointed for further propagation and export. The collection is used in checking imported ornamental plant material which is further propagated in this country for the enlargement of ornamental plant species assortment. It is important also in monitoring the possible occurrence of quaratine viruses of the genus Tospovirus and other viruses having a broad spectrum of host plant species.
The rsolvers are members of the working group on virus diseases of ornamental plants at
the International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS). The members of this working group exchange virus isolates, offer antisera and information on results of the experiments on viruses of ornamental plants. The isolates are available after application to other institutions in the Czech Republic and in abroad.
Contact:Silva Tarouca research institute for landscape and ornamental gardening
Květnové nám. 391
252 43 Průhonice, Czech Republic
phone: +420 296528111, fax: +420 267750440
Staff: Curator: Ing. Josef Mertelík CSc. (curator)